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Counterintelligence: Denial & Deception (Fraud Investigations)

What is Denial & Deception?

Denial and Deception (D&D) refers to the tactics that individuals or organizations use to mislead or deceive others about their intentions, capabilities, or actions. This can take many forms, such as lying, concealing information, spreading false information, or creating an appearance of innocence or benign intent. Denial refers to the attempt to block information which could be used by an opponent to learn some truth. Deception, by contrast, refers to an effort to cause an adversary to believe something that is not true. D&D can be used for a variety of purposes, such as to gain an advantage in negotiations, to avoid detection or punishment, or to manipulate public opinion. It can also be used as a defensive measure, to protect against espionage or surveillance.

Types of Denial and Deception

There are several types of denial and deception that can be employed as part of a D&D operation. Some common types include:

Disinformation: Disseminating false or misleading information with the intention of deceiving the audience.

Misattribution: Attributing an action or event to the wrong source in order to mislead the audience.

Concealment: Hiding or withholding information in order to deceive the audience.

Simulation: Creating false or simulated events or situations in order to deceive the audience.

Imitation: Imitating the actions or characteristics of another entity in order to deceive the audience.

Deception by omission: Failing to disclose important information in order to mislead the audience.

Denial: Denying the truth or existence of something in order to deceive the audience.

Uncertainty: Cause the adversary to doubt the veracity of a discovered vulnerability or stolen information.

Resource Depletion: Waste an adversary's time and energy on obtaining and analyzing false information.

Diversion: Direct an adversary's attention from real assets toward bogus ones.

Denial and Deception Tactics:

  1. Mask

  2. Repackage

  3. Dazzle

  4. Mimic

  5. Invent

  6. Decoy

The D&D lifecycle typically involves the following stages:

Planning: The first stage of the D&D lifecycle involves identifying the goals and objectives of the operation, as well as the target audience and the information that needs to be conveyed.

Execution: During this stage, the D&D operation is carried out, and the misinformation or deception is disseminated to the intended audience.

Assessment: In this stage, the effectiveness of the D&D operation is evaluated and any necessary adjustments are made.

Review: The next stage of the D&D lifecycle involves reviewing the overall success of the operation and identifying any lessons learned that can reinforce future D&D efforts.

It is important to note that D&D operations can have serious consequences, as they can lead to misunderstandings and conflicts.


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